Saturday, February 15, 2020
(Economics) - Assignment Example This is mainly because of overcrowding in the factory or when addition of extra labor results in over utilization of capital resources. Diseconomies of scale are observed when a firm becomes a large scale business but loses control over its cost structure, thereby resulting in high costs per unit. Management inefficiencies, poor communication and absence of motivated workers lead to decline in productivity and subsequently in diseconomies of scale. The average cost decreases as the quantity produced increases because the contribution of fixed costs to each unit decreases. For instance, the fixed costs remain same no matter what the quantity produced is; therefore, if more units are produced the total costs become low that then result in low average total costs. Assuming both firms have similar fixed costs, then the firm XYZ will have higher cost per kilowatt hour because its total output is three times below the output of ABC. For instance, the contribution of fixed costs in average cost per kilowatt hour will be higher in case of firm XYZ due to low productivity. Explicit costs are those that are incurred during business operations i-e producing and offering goods and services. Indeed, they lead to cash outflows. Implicit costs, in contrast, are the opportunity costs of using business resources / assets that could or could not be calculated in monetary terms. Total fixed costs remains same or unaffected as output rises in the short run, assuming no change in capital resources. However, if firm expands in the long run and rents a large building for office, factory or other business purposes, then its fixed costs will also be changed. If a flawless / impeccable car is built by a single highly specialized individual then I could pay what that car-manufacturing firm or individual person demands for that car because the utility that I would get from using that vehicle would
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Organisational Behaviours and HRM - Coursework Example rce management and staff management may differ in so many ways depending on the scope, nature of the roles and even the services with human resource management being broader in perspective in both compared to staff management that is narrower in perspective. They too have similarities. The similarities can be summarized in terms of; Payroll & Associated Tasks, new staff recruitment procedures, the documentation processes, and models. In terms of models, both focus on the significance of integrating personnel and human resource management techniques with organizational objectives (Armstrong, 2006) so that both can aim to achieve a common overall objective. The organizational behavior concept and human processes are quite basic in relationship. Organizational behavior concept manifest themselves as some regulations or guidelines that define how employees in a given organization should conduct themselves when they want to engage themselves within certain activities like politics, examples include; organization culture, politics, and ethics. Human resource management, on the other hand, is concerned with implementing the said concepts by doing whatever is necessary to develop strategies of setting rules for the concerned employees. Example, under the organization concept of organization culture, human resource will be concerned with acting as an amplifier of the organization culture using any communication means like employee orientation to help him/her understand the said culture. The same is true for other concepts. The primary responsibility of a human resource manager is to ensure that human resources are utilized and managed as efficiently and effectively as possible (Saiyadain, 1999). Particularly, he/she does; recruitment and selection as well as developing the workplace as required by the organization. He also sees through that all employees receive the required training that is relevant to their job. Others are; motivating employees, ensuring a balance
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Ralf Michaels: The Detroit Principles as Global Background INTRODUCTION: The article which is being critically evaluated in this essay is, Ralf Michaels, THE UNIDROIT PRINCIPLES AS GLOBAL BACKGROUND LAW (2014) 19(4) Uniform Law Review 1-22. In this essay the research objectives of the article will be seen which will be taking us through the actual study and research and will also tell us the actual purpose. Following this the research methodology of the article will be assessed which will show the data collection methods and ways and the purpose of the research study. After this the literature review of the article will be evaluated which will be followed by the research findings of the article. Finally, the essay will be concluded. The conclusion will state weather the research methodology used by the author Ralf Michaels was relevant for their study or not. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES: The most important thing for any research proposal is defining the main objectives of the research proposal. What is the main point or purpose of the research? What are the research problems that research is focussing upon and, why? Research objectives are the statements which focusses upon the identification and description of variables and on finding the relationships of variables. Ralf Michaels have developed a very and concise research objective for his study. The general illustrations of the categories and the types of information that the researcher desires to obtain from the study is taken into consideration in research objectives. His study objective was that, the role played by the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts (PICC), which is along with the findings concerning the actual use of the Principles of International Commercial Contracts (PICC). Finally, the use of PICC in private international law, their use to interpret the Contracts for the Int ernational Sale of goods (CISG), their relationship with other non-State codifications, and their relationship with a possible global commercial code is discussed. The objectives main purpose is to mix the hypothesis with the main study, the study objectives should be clearly stated as they define the main aims of the research proposal. And the article written by Ralf Michaels totally justifies it. In the beginning of the article the author is focussing on the role which PICC has played successfully and where it has not. This is followed by the authors suggestion that characterizes the PICC as a non-State code, or even a non- State legal systemfor example, a new lex mercatoria. Finally, the author tells about some implications and their use in private international law, the use of these implications to interpret the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG), their relationship with other non- State codifications, and their relationship with a possible global commercial code. The research process is a systematic process which is made of patterns so that the data which is not required is not collected and it helps in solving the problem and it involves three main stages. These are: Planning, Data Collection, and Analysis. Ralf Michaels also makes it clear to all the readers the clear research objective of his article by stating in the initial paragraphs that what he wants to say and his inclination towards the PICC and its uses in private international law and interpretation of CISG in international contracts of sale. ARTICLES RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. The methodology may include publication research, interviews, surveys, and other techniques of research and both historical as well as present information is included. The research methodology should be good to get new ideas. The researcher here has used the doctrinal research methodology for his article. Doctrinal research provides a systematic mixture of the rules that governs the legal category and analyses the relationship between the rules, explaining the area of difficulty. Doctrinal research is concerned with the formulation of legal doctrines through the analysis of legal rules. The researcher in his article has used black letter approach by referring various books, comments and most importantly by referring the work of UNIDROIT and its principles and some other agencies like International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). In doctrinal research, there are systematic formulations of the law contexts. They clarify ambiguities within rules, place them in a logical and coherent structure and describe their relationship to other rules. And per what has been observed in the article by Ralf Michaels he has also referred to a lot many Acts and statutes to make his argument to the point. He has used Part II on the uses of the PICC, PICC as a global background law and PICC as a global commercial code and applicability of PICC along with PICC as an applicable law in the absence of a choice. The dominance of the expository, doctrinal tradition in legal scholarship has already been noted. However, it is important to understand that this is not simply a single, isolated category of scholarship. Some element of doctrinal analysis will be found in all but the most radical forms of legal research. Here are some of the radical forms of research APPLIED (Professional constituency), PURE (Academic constituency), INTERDISCIPLINARY METHODOLOGY (Research about law) and the one which the au thor is using in the article is DOCTRINAL METHODOLOGY (Research in law). Although law reform research appears as a separate category within. Its practitioners emphasise the importance of traditional legal analysis within their socio-legal work. Doctrinal analysis therefore remains the defining characteristics of academic legal research and the account which follows represents an attempt to describe the nature of the methodologies employed within it. Ralf Michaels is also very adamant in his article by following the doctrinal research method. In his article where he just wants to give an idea about PICC and its various uses as background law as well in modern days which is used in interpretation of the commercial sale contracts and also the applicability of PICC. He tries to prove his point by strictly adhering to the black letter approach and using old laws and judgements and law acts and statutes. The nature of legal research depends on the objectives of the researcher. The object may be to investigate the policy which the law should be seeking to implement. This type of research tends to be more theoretical and may require engagement with other disciplines, such as sociology, politics, economics, and philosophy. The doctrinal research methodology is made within the common law as a research method of the main practice. Doctrine is a mixture of various rules, principles, norms, and values. This is doctrinal research. If, however, the same problem is viewed from the perspective of a principled analysis of the law, different questions would be asked. The starting point will be to determine what the relevant cases decide. After that the researcher will determine whether any relevant principles can be distilled from those cases, then identify the policy which underpins the principle and finally consider whether the law is right. One of the main purpose of a research is to make reasonable conclusions about the population under investigation from the results realized from a sample. If the principle does not accurately reflect the policy then the law may be wrong and the researcher will consider other alternative solutions to the problem. This is a much more academic approach to doctrinal research, since it looks beyond the mere solution of the problem to the identification of a defensible rationale which underpins the detailed rules. Principles of the legal research methods are tailored to the needs of the researchers. Various issues like the participatory and community based research as well as empirical methods are also examined along with the principle approaches which are commonly used in the legal research. The emphasis is being put on how the research is being done instead of the what is being done. This has become the nature of legal research. This also hinders the researchers from getting enough information on the topic under investigation. The essential features of doctrinal research methods are that it involves the analysis of the legal concepts and in this research conventional sources of data are used. Doctrinal legal research focusses upon the dataÃâÃ ÃâÃ which is collected from the cases, statues, legal concepts, law reports as well as relevant text books. Since, the doctrinal legal research is the research of the black letters of the law, therefore, the ascertainment of law is required and is necessary. The research of a doctrinal legal researcher is based on the secondary data which is relevant to his proposition. Doctrinal legal research is not about research about law but it is a research which is into law and legal concepts. Ralf Michaels in this article The Unidroit principles as global background law tries to use the same methodology by identifying the rule of law and describing the factual situation and then concluding with all the laws and the facts. The author who is disturbed with the fac t that there is misuse of the comparative law as tool of law reform have tried the doctrinal research approach or the black letter approach as the methodology of the article. ETHICAL ISSUES EXPLORED IN THE ARTICLE: Ethics are the principles and guidelines which helps us in understanding and determining the things which are morally right and justifiable. Many ethical issues are widely differed in research. Some writers disagree on the points that weather they are ethically acceptable in social research or not. If there is any unethical research then it may be associated with a research methods, like the disguised observation and deception in experiments. The ethical issues can be raised in all parts of the research like the definition, parts where the research objectives have been defined, where the hypothesis have been defined, part of the literature review, data collection points, data editing and cleaning, choice of the methods, conclusions, and recommendations and the referencing. Research that poses potential harm, risk, or danger to the participant is not allowed, unless the beneÃ ¯Ã ¬Ã t of the research outweighs the risks and full informed consent is given. Psychologists and their assistants are also responsible for conducting themselves ethically and for treating the participants in an ethical manner always. Ethics apply at every stage of the research. The research is dependent on the goodwill as for the goodwill of the individuals and the respondents and their willingness to give the personal information. Trust is also a very important factor in ethics, as weather the decision makers trust the researchers to provide accurate information. Finally, comes the professionalism and confidentiality in ethics in research. A research must be conducted in a safe an ethical manner. While carrying a research a researcher must ensure that the rights of the research subjects are not violated in any manner. There are few ethical considerations, which are as follows: Informed Consent Invasion of Privacy and confidentiality Deception Protection from harm Data Protection Affiliation and Conflict of Interest In the article by Ralf Michaels, he also strictly followed the ethical standards which made a significant contribution to the quality and integrity of the study. In the first part of his article Ralf Michaels also mentioned in the beginning of the article the author is focussing on the role which PICC has played successfully and where it has not. This is followed by the authors suggestion that characterizes the PICC as a non-State code, or even a non- State legal systemfor example, a new lex mercatoria. Finally, the author tells about some implications and their use in private international law, the use of these implications to interpret the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG), their relationship with other non- State codifications, and their relationship with a possible global commercial code. he totally has no intentions to criticize comparative law as an academic discipline nor he intends to put the doubt on the utility of development of comparati ve law. These statements by the author of the article proves that he strictly adheres to the ethical standards. Psychologists, as well as their assistants, are responsible for maintaining the dignity and welfare of all participants. This obligation also entails protecting them from harm, unnecessary risks, or mental and physical discomfort that may be inherent in the research procedure. Scientific research work, as all human activities, is governed by individual, community, and social values. Research ethics involve requirements on daily work, the protection of dignity of subjects and the publication of the information in the research. ARTICLES LITERATURE REVIEW: Review of the literature is a summary as well as the critical analysis of the relevant article which is being researched and which is the topic that is being studied. The main aim of the literature review is to update the reader with the current present literature as well as the justification for future research in the area. A good literature review is one which collects and gathers information from various sources. The information is about a subject. A literature review should be structured perfectly and its structuring is very important to enhance the flow and readability of the review. There are a few types of literature review, these are: Traditional or Narrative Literature Review Systematic Literature Review Conducting a deep review of past studies serves three main functions. It helps the researcher to make himself familiar with the content, conclusions, and methodology of past studies along with the problems or need of the research and to show the main issues which has a relevance with the study. In this way, the researcher can understand wide context of the research which is related to the specific issue, problem or need, along with this it also helps in avoiding duplication of the available research, particularly outdated or flawed research. Reviewing literature on the previous studies makes the researcher coming across the benefits and drawbacks of different methods and methodologies for research. Literature reviews should objectively report the current knowledge on a topic and provide a summary of the best available research from previously published studies related to a specific topic. The synthesis of a literature reviewed provides an informed perspective or a comprehensive overview of the knowledge available on the topic. The detailed overview should be written in such a way as to provide clarity and promote understanding by the reader. Clinicians and researchers use literature reviews in decision making as well as to identify, justify and refine hypothesis and to recognize and avoid pitfalls in previous research. Literature reviews afford a means for validating assumptions and opinions and providing insight into the dynamics underlying the findings of other studies and they may offer more conclusive results than a single primary research study. Some specific purpose of literature review is to provide a theoretical framework for a specific topic under study. Then define relevant or key terms and important variables used for a study or manuscript development. Then to provide a synthesize overview of current evidence for practice to gain new perspective and support assumptions and opinions presented in a manuscript using research studies and so forth. Then to identify the main methodology and research techniques previously used and lastly to demonstrate the gap in the literature, pointing to the significance of the problem and need for the quality improvement project to be conducted. The literature review conveys the previous knowledge and facts to the reader, which are established on a topic. It also conveys the strengths and weaknesses of the topic to the reader. It updates the reader with the exact state of the research in a field and tells if there are any contradictions which may challenge the findings of the research studies. Literature review helps in improving the research methodologies as well as the tools which are used in the research investigation. It also provides the researchers with the knowledge about the problems which the previous researchers might have faced while studying the same topic. A literature review is an evaluative report of studies found in the literature related to your selected area.ÃâÃ The review should describe, summarize, evaluate, and clarify this literature. It should give a theoretical basis for the research and help you determine the nature of your own research. Select a limited number of works that are central to your area rather than trying to collect many works that are not as closely connected to your topic area. Hence in the article by Ralf Michaels, he has taken a care about the literature review and hence the issues, the methods, conclusions, and the methodology are done in a very systematic manner and in a very nice way and that shows the real success of his study. FINDINGS OF THE RESEARCHER: In the article The Unidroit principles as global background law the author Ralf Michaels aims to try and tell the people the role played by the principles of UNIDROIT after so many years of existence, and that the role played is quite different from the one which was originally intended.The researcher also present nine facts and findings which were regarding the actual use of the PICC, which can be assessed based on published opinions, legislation, and scholarship. Then the researcher findings are used to suggest that the PICC should be viewed as a code or even a non-state law, instead its a restatement of global general contract law and its function is that of a background law. Finally, the researcher discusses implications of these findings for concrete questions: their use in private international law, their use to interpret the CISG, their relationship with other non-State codifications, and their relationship with a possible global commercial code. Ralf Michaels has made sure th at all the findings are errorless which enhanced their validity and reliability. So therefore, here it can be said that the findings by the researcher are relevant and up to the mark. CONCLUSION: It can be now concluded that Ralf Michaels conducted a very nice and thorough research about the PICC as a principle, its uses and its applicability and functions. How it is used in interpreting CISG and its relation with other non-state codifications. He keeps his focus on the uses of PICC along with its applicability and its relation with other non-state codifications along with its importance in interpreting the CISG. Also, the success of the research can be accredit by the fine use the methodology by the researcher. Ralf Michaels was very optimistic to use the doctrinal approach or the so called black letter approach for his research. This methodology of research helped Ralf Michaels to gather all the facts from the cases and the laws from previous judgement and helped him to put his agreement forward in a very sensible and confident way. Due to the doctrinal research method, he was able to compare the laws and he was able to put forward what he wanted to say. The study design us ed by the researcher is also very commendable. Ralf Michaels always tried to explain his point by using and giving references from others work in the related field along with background laws and statues which made his research really interesting and also very strong. The researcher made five parts of his article along with sub parts to the main parts so that he can try to prove his point very nicely and with that five parts of the article he really managed to pull his article to good level of success. The ethical issues are also covered in the article and the researcher has done that very skilfully. Nowhere in the article we can pick up any bad words or the insults to anybody. The article was written very precise and satisfactory. REFERENCE LIST: file:///storage/emulated/O/Download/Research_Methods_Session_04.pdf> accessed 8 January 2017 Bailey, F. 2014 The Origin and Success of Qualitative Research, International Journal of Market Research, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 167-184 Can J Surg, Research Questions, Hypothesis and Objectives (2010) 52(4) 280 Dr. Wanjohi J, Research Objectives Presentation 26 June 2014 SPS, (2014) http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/research-methodology.html> accessed 10 January 2017 accessed 10 January 2017 Knight A and Ruddock L (eds), Advanced research methods in the built environment (Wiley-Blackwell (an imprint of John Wiley Sons Ltd) 2008) Chynoweth P, Legal research in the built environment: A methodological framework (2011) Ralf Michaels, The UNIDROIT principles as global background law (2014) 19(4) Uniform Law Review 1-22 Chynoweth P, Legal research in the built environment: A methodological framework (2011) Duncan, N.J. Hutchinson, Defining and describing what we do: Doctrinal legal research (2012) 17(1) Deakin Law Review 83-84 Bryman, A. 2012, Social Research Methods. Oxford: OUP Oxford Cahillane L and Schweppe J 9eds), Legal research methods: Principles and Practicalities (Clarus Press 2016) http://www.academia.edu/15065282/Doctrinal_Legal_Research> accessed 11 January 2017 MaiJoy, Ranjeeta Lamba (2 September 2011) www.slideshare.net/MaiJoy/research-methodology-ethical-issues-in-research-an-assignment> accessed 11 January 2017 A BRIEF HISTORY OF ETHICAL CONCERNS, accessed 11 January 2017 Fouka G and Mantzorou M, What are the Major Ethical Issues in Conducting Research? Is there a Conflict between the Research Ethics and the Nature of Nursing? 5(1) Health Science Journal 3-14 Cronin P, Ryan F, and Coughlan M, Undertaking a literature review: A step-by-step approach (2008) 17(1) British Journal of Nursing 38-43 Lamb, D. 2013 Research in the First Person: Reflection on the Research Experience Using a Research Journal, Market Social Research, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 32-39. Baker JD, The purpose, process, and methods of writing a literature review (2016) 103(3) AORN Journal 265-269 Path N and Nursing path, Niharika pedamallu (7 May 2013) https://www.slideshare.net/mobile/drjayeshpatidar/literature-review-in-research accessed 14 January 2017 Purpose of the literature review, (2008) http://library.queensu.ca/webedu/grad/Purpose_of_the_Literature_Review.pdf> accessed 14 January 2017  file:///storage/emulated/O/Download/Research_Methods_Session_04.pdf> accessed 8 January 2017  Bailey, F. 2014 The Origin and Success of Qualitative Research, International Journal of Market Research, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 167-184  Can J Surg, Research Questions, Hypothesis and Objectives (2010) 52(4) 280  Dr. Wanjohi J, Research Objectives Presentation 26 June 2014 SPS, (2014)  http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/research-methodology.html> accessed 10 January 2017  accessed 10 January 2017  Knight A and Ruddock L (eds), Advanced research methods in the built environment (Wiley-Blackwell (an imprint of John Wiley Sons Ltd) 2008)  Chynoweth P, Legal research in the built environment: A methodological framework (2011)  Ralf Michaels, The UNIDROIT principles as global background law (2014) 19(4) Uniform Law Review 1-22  ibid  Chynoweth P, Legal research in the built environment: A methodological framework (2011)  ibid  Duncan, N.J. Hutchinson, Defining and describing what we do: Doctrinal legal research (2012) 17(1) Deakin Law Review 83-84 Bryman, A. 2012, Social Research Methods. Oxford: OUP Oxford  ibid  Cahillane L and Schweppe J 9eds), Legal research methods: Principles and Practicalities (Clarus Press 2016)  http://www.academia.edu/15065282/Doctrinal_Legal_Research> accessed 11 January 2017  MaiJoy, Ranjeeta Lamba (2 September 2011) www.slideshare.net/MaiJoy/research-methodology-ethical-issues-in-research-an-assignment> accessed 11 January 2017  ibid  A BRIEF HISTORY OF ETHICAL CONCERNS, accessed 11 January 2017  MaiJoy, Ranjeeta Lamba (2 September 2011) www.slideshare.net/MaiJoy/research-methodology-ethical-issues-in-research-an-assignment> accessed 11 January 2017  ibid  ibid  Fouka G and Mantzorou M, What are the Major Ethical Issues in Conducting Research? Is there a Conflict between the Research Ethics and the Nature of Nursing? 5(1) Health Science Journal 3-14  Cronin P, Ryan F, and Coughlan M, Undertaking a literature review: A step-by-step approach (2008) 17
Friday, January 17, 2020
My hometown was a wonderful place to live But there were many times it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t forgive Some memories I hold so fond, Others I wish were gone. My hometownÃ¢â¬â¢s history made my heart bleed The town no longer has what I need When the war came and took the peace as prisoners we wished to be freed That's when you know it's time to leave Because in my hometown I can no longer believe One day my father told me we must leave town With dismayed eyes as his tears were drawn He said we are fish following the ocean,We have to go north to a freer nation Where beaver live, mountains, it's a better option In my hometown I loved how you can walk wherever you want, No one casts a disapproving scowl or taunt This place has snowy hills, green valleys running up and down Still, my hometown deserves a crown My hometown was a wonderful place to live; But there were many times it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t forgive; (Some memories I hold so fond) ; Others I wish were gone; My hometownÃ¢â¬â¢s history made my heart bleed; The town no longer has what I need ;When the war came and took the peace as prisoners we wished toobeefreed; That's when you know it's time to leave; Because in my hometown I can no longer believe; One day my father told me we must leave town; With dismayed eyes as his tears were drawn ? He said we are fish following the ocean? We have to go north to a freer nation? it's a better option? In my hometown I loved how you can walk wherever you want, No one casts a disapproving scowl or taunt This place has snowy hills, green valleys running up and down Still, my hometown deserves a crown. .
Thursday, January 9, 2020
The Arab Isreali Conflict The Arab-Israeli conflict came about from the notion of Political Zionism. Zionism is the belief that Jews constitute a nation (or a people) and that they deserve the right to return to what they consider to be their ancestral home, land of Israel (or Palestine). Political Zionism, the belief that Jews should establish a state for themselves in Palestine, was a revolutionary idea for the 19th Century. During World War I, Jews supported countries that constituted the Central Powers because they detested the tyranny of czarist Russia. Both the Allies and Central Powers needed Jewish support, but Germany could not espouse Zionism due to its ties with the Ottoman Empire, which still controlled Palestine. BritishÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Winston Churchill issued a white paper denying that the British government meant to give preferential treatment to Jews with a proviso for restricting Jewish immigration to conform to PalestineÃ¢â¬â¢s absorptive capacity. Another action that seemed to violate the mandate was the creation of the Emirate of Transjordan, removing two-thirds of Palestine that lay east of the Jordan River from the area in which Jews could develop their national home, claiming the partition was only temporary. During the first civilian governor of Palestine, it looked as if Jewish-Arab differences would be resolved when more Jews emigrated out of Palestine than immigrated and with the presence of a complementary relationship among the two peoples, but the hopes dissipated during the 1929 Wailing Wall Incident. The Wailing Wall (a.k.a. the Western Wall) is a remnant of the second Jewish Temple, symbolizing the hope that one day the Temple will be rebuilt and the ancient Jewish rituals revived; but the Wall also forms a part of the enclosure surrounding the Temple Mount, which the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa mosque stand atop; Muslims feared that Jewish actions before the Western Wall could lead to their pressing a claim to the historic site. In 192 8, Jewish worshipers brought some benches to sit on. The police took them away several times, but the Jews kept putting them back. To Muslims, this activity was an attemptShow MoreRelatedThe Israeli Palestine Conflict And Conflict1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIsraeli-Palestine Conflict 4 Location 4 Summary of events 4 Parties concerned 4 Potential solutions 4 Ukraine Crisis 5 Location 5 Summary of events 5 Parties concerned 5 Potential solutions 5 Conflict in the South China Sea 6 Location 6 Summary of events 6 Parties concerned 6 Potential solutions 6 Rankings 7 Bibliography 8 World Map http://www.worldmapsonline.com/images/murals/miller_world_physical_wall_mural_lg.jpg Israeli-Palestine Conflict The Israeli-Palestine conflict is an ongoingRead MoreSix Day War: Operation Moked1372 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction The State of Israel, one of the youngest countries in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, is no stranger to conflict. Prior to the removal of the British Mandatory Palestine tension between the Palestinians and the Jews were high as immigrants from Europe flooded into Palestinian territory. With the British pulling out of Palestine and with the United Nations General AssemblyÃ¢â¬â¢s 181 resolution Israel was able to declares its independence in 1948. Two millennium ago that the Jewish people were forcedRead MoreWater Conflict in the Jordan River Basin3403 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagessecuring water rights for their respective states. The conflict over water is also overshadowed by the Arab-Israeli issues and the subsequent territorial questions. While territory is often at the forefront of the issues, securing water has also become a contributing factor in the conflicts of the past, and will continue in the future. Choices of conflict or cooperation will have to be made, given the diminishing amounts of water available. Water conflict in the Jordan River Basin Introduction Since time
Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2689 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category History Essay Type Essay any type Did you like this example? Since the beginning of civilization, it has been in the nature of humans to compete with one another. In ancient Greece, the citizens trained in gymnasiums or naked places perfect their wrestling or boxing technique (Sweet, 1987). Athletics were more important to the Greeks than us today according to Swe 7Like the current American society, cheating was looked down upon in ancient times. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Albert Spalding Sport" essay for you Create order Cheating was looked at as sacrilegious; a disgrace to Zeus (Sweet, 1987). Today cheating is not looked at as a sacrilegious act to a god, but as a shameful act of cheating. Luckily, (or unluckily whichever side the athlete) there are entities in place that all athletes have the same competitive advantage. The act of managing sport can level a playing field, negotiate a salary, relocate an athlete, advise an organization, run a facility, or teach others the topics in sport management in a college setting. The modem field of sport management is a fairly young field that is constantly adapting to the demands required. The curriculum of sport management also adheres to the same principles of business, but is even younger than the practice of sport management. Through history, sport and sport management has shown its progressive tendencies, ideals that were ahead of common American society at the time. This leads to the five significant events and the influential minds behind the events in sport management, which are the topic of this paper. They are certainly not all the people and events that had significant contribution, but simply the top five that are deemed worthy for this assignment. Thoroughbred Racing Since history is usually placed in chronological order, the trend continues today. Thoroughbred horse racing was a very popular sport in eighteenth century England; along with baseball, cricket, and field hockey (Masteralexis, Barr, Hums, 2005). Positions of Albert Spalding to Earle Ziegler 3 political and social power were appointed to men with wealth; most of those positions being horse owners, track or club owners, and other various supervision roles. Each club in the given area had its own set of rules, which were created by the owner; sometimes even to work in his own favour. Complications often arose when a rider from one track would race at another as rules varied (Masteralexis, Barr, Hums, 2005). And by the 1830s with the innovation of railroads, horse owners wanted to compete nationally to increase profits, and breed with new horses to create faster horses. Naturally a new management style was needed but this was only the first complication of two. The second w as gambling. Gambling was a very popular event amongst the upper and lower classes at the track. The lower class was then able to wager bets at the track with the upper class because club/track owners did not charge admission to the event. The track was a social setting in which a diverse group of people intermingled for a common purpose here as a member of the upper and lower class would hardly be seen in the same place, sharing a common purpose (Masteralexis, Barr, Hums, 2005). The gambling itself took place during the race, which was a four-mile course broken up into three legs. The winner would have to win at least two out of the three races. If the fans of the race suspected the jockey of throwing a race, the jockey would often be physically abused by the fans (Masteralexis, Barr, Hums, 2005). It was not very common for unethical behaviour to take place when bets were made, but they did occur and were dealt with promptly. Sometime after the 1830s, there became a s tandardized management system in horse racing which forced club/track owners to standardized lengths of the course, forced the track to time the events, and even spawned a new style of horse racing: Thoroughbred racing with weights added to the horses (Masteralexis, Barr, Hums,Albert Spalding to Earle Ziegler2005). In gambling, a standardized system was also adopted as club owners started handicapping the races, ran a sweepstakes race and even started to offer tip sheets to the customers at the events. These strategical changes are viewed as the first managerial changes in club sport; while also being viewed as the successful model for club sports, which ruled the eighteenth century in the forms of boxing, cricket, rugby and soccer (Masteralexis, Barr, Hums, 2005). The club sport system still exists today, although it does not thrive as it once did in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. But these clubs set a precedent that would contribute to the next inno vator in the sport management profession. William Hulbert and the National League As stated in the previous section, club teams were the dominate structure for athletic teams in the nineteenth century. Baseball was no different. Most teams were around and had a small fan base, but most teams were never able to play a whole season. or keep fan interest for a whole season because of lack of funding. It was not uncommon for teams to just quit halfway through the season. The most popular team of the 1860s was the Cincinatti Red Stockings who toured the east to play teams and because of their fan base, were able to pay for travel expenses and earn a profit while playing on the road (Masteralexis, Barr, Hums, 2005). On a road trip at the end of 1870 season the Red Stocking lost the three games of the season, and because of that were no longer considered the champions of baseball. The fan base for the club fell drastically and the team disbanded before the beginning of the following season (Masteralexis, Barr, Hums, 2005). In 1871, after such hard times, r emaining teams formed a union; a new league called the National Association of Professional Baseball Players. Unfortunately, the beginning results were no different than that of their predecessors in the club system as teams would form, stop playing halfway through the season, and perhaps start operations the next season. After years of trying to gain credibility and reach stability in the league, an entrepreneur by the name of William Hulbert purchased the National League of Professional Baseball Players in 1876 and was often referred to as the Nazl League from then on (Masteralexis, Barr, Hums, 2005). Hulbert made sure that all business aspects were in the open and not conducted behind closed doors as to ensure honest means of doing business. He also set guidelines for the eight teams to follow: e was going to make sure that the league would not crumble because of one teams financial irresponsibility. All teams were accountable for each other, or the league wccl: fail . Hulbert made many decisions for the league. On one occasion, Hulbert canceie final series between Philadelphia and New York as both teams were struggling and their outcome would not have affected league standings (Crosset Hums, 20O5jl By doing this, he allowed the teams to shut down the operations so the team would save money for the next season and not hinder future operations. Ethics and citizenship were staple points in Hulberts National League as well, forcing teams to set curfews for the athletes and enforcing strict policies that meant banning players for life if they were gambling, for example. Hulberts precedent still stands today, as over 100 years later, Pete Rose was banned from ever stepping foot into a baseball park because of gambling allegations. He also made sure that the fans were proper citizens as well; raising ticket prices to keep rowdier, lower-class fans out and not allowing alcohol to be sold in the ball park. However, the revolutionary idea, ac cording to Crosset and Hums, was the implementation of a pennant race at the end of the season. The two top teams at the end of the season would play a series for the pennant, better known as the National League Championship. Hulbert also protected teams from losing their players, as players under contract were not allowed to negotiate or be bought out by other teams without both parties being aware of it. The players reservation system was a precedent in sport management, and is still a foundation in modem sport management. After some success with the league, local newspapers started to cover the games; giving updates on injuries, interviewing players, keeping track of statistics and reporting other coaching strategies to keep the fans interested. This also opened a new element for sports as fans 11i could not afford to attend games and only followed by word of mouth. The sports coverage allowed fans to follow keep track of the games played and re-enact the game through the written stories. The precedents set by Hulbert were truly astronomical; building foundations that still stand in baseball today. His demands for class and integrity are considered sacred to the game of baseball and were followed for years; which is why steroids have been such a paramount concern in baseball for the past couple of years. For his actions he was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1995 as a pioneer of the game. Albert Spalding While William Hulbert was a great innovator himself, accomplishing many feats, he was not alone in the formation of the new National League. Albert Spalding was a pitcher for the Boston Red Stockings, who subsequently were members of the National League of Professional Baseball Players. Spalding was a major celebrity of the game, winning 241 games, and losing only 60 between 1871 and 1876 (Lampster, 2006). An innovator himself, Spalding pitched with his own signature designed baseball. After leading the Red Stockings to the first National League Championship in 1876, he decided to create his own company named simply after himself. That same year, Spalding was the official baseball of the National League, and baseballs were sold to the general public: therefore, becoming the first sporting good company in America (Lampster, 2006). The year 1877 proved to be Spaldings last season as a professional ballplayer. He then focused solely on managing his company and the Chicago Whi te Stockings as their team president. After managing, he became an international promoter of baseball. spreading the game around the world in 1888. In 1887, he created and manufactured the first American football. And in 1894, he created the first basketball. Spalding was a We innovator and strived to set precedent like Hulbert. Spalding and Hulbert fed off of each others innovations and cleverly marketed each other through each others company (Lampert, 2006). Sport Management as an Academic Field Almost 100 years has passed since the wrinkle in time that was the beginning professional baseball. The time was the 1960s, Major League Baseball was a prevae: organization, Albert Spalding had already been inducted into the baseball hail of and the sports industry was thriving (Crosset Hums, 2005 According to Cc sse: and Hums, two men discussed the idea of a sport management curriculum in 1 95 a physical educator from the University of Miami, James G. Mason, and owner of the then Brooklyn Dodgers, George OMalley. OMalley is most recognized as the chief legal counsel for Jacky Robinson when he broke the color barrier in 1947 and for moving the Brooklyn Dodgers to Los Angeles The two decided that to keep up with the demand in the sports industry a professional degree needed to be started to accommodate. In 1966, OMalley and Mason started the first Sport Management graduate program at Ohio University in Athens, Ohio. The idea of a sport management degree caught on soon th ereafter as Biscayne College and St. Johns University founded the first undergraduate programs in the United States (Crosset Hums, 2005). The University of Massachusetts-Amherst followed in Ohios footsteps, offering the second graduate program in the U.S. in 1971. As the field grew, unions of teachers started to form; mos: of which were short lived. Todays dominant sport management scholarly union is the North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM). Sport Management is one c the most highly sought after degrees by incomi1 freshman (Mahoney, 2008). With massive growth however, teachers are in high demand and there are not enough people: teach the high volume of students and conduct new research to progress the field in a brand new direction. The next paragraph focuses on a man who changed the field of sport management forever. This dual citizen of the U.S. and Canada implemented his own curriculum; his name is Dr. Earle F. Ziegler. According to the official Earle F. Ziegler website, Ziegler got his start in education at Yale University where he taught physical education and coached football and wrestling from 1943 to 1949. He began working for the University of Western Ontario in 1949 as a part-time German instructor. Shortly thereafter, he became the department head for Physical, Health, Recreation for the university. At the University of Michigan, Ziegler began his research for physical education and how to manage it effectively. He then conducted research at the University of Illinois, and then went back to the University of Western Ontario. After years of solely researching in the field of physical education, Ziegler intertwined physical education with other topics such as Albert Spalding to Earie Z:-philosophy and administrative theory. In 1975, the year Ziegler returned to Western Ontario, he released six publications on various topics branching physical education out. An acquired copy of Management Competency Development i n Sport and Physical Education written by Dr. Ziegler in 1983 is an interesting read. Ziegler explains throughout the opening chapter the different types and amounts of research he did to write his book, He opened the book with four chapters about management theories and the emerging field of study. He then presented a strategic plan on how to implement management into sport. It is hard to comprehend that this had never been done before. Dr. Ziegler was in the field conducting research on different topics and drawing parallels between the two. There were degree programs before this at universities around the country, but Ziegler created an entirely new school of thought with the publications that he wrote; inspiring young professionals to think proactively and engage themselves in theory. Most of the topics discussed today in sport management courses are based off of his research and those who followed in his footsteps. Ideals that a person would just take for granted n ow/ere accomplished for the first time 25 years ago by an old man from New York City. Ziegler, in fact, was the first president of NASSM, and because of his contributions to the field was honoured with an award in his name in 1988. This award is given out annually to the educator in the sport management field making positive contributions in research and education sport management. : Conclusion As clearly shown throughout the paper, the field of sport management shares a rich history like other fields of academia, even at its young existence. The models of conformity in club horse racing would open the door for the brand new league system created by William Hulbert. And without the newly renovated National League, Spalding would not have marketed his new product, as well with Hulbert. As the field slowly grew and innovation lay dormant for sometime, that opened the door for OMallev and Mason to create a brand new field of study to feed their vision of enhancing the field of sport management. And finally without Earle Ziegler, sport management would not be flourishing the way it is today without his teachings and theories. Again, he opened a new doorway for students to walk through. Teaching his knowledge and inspiring students then, who are the administrators of today. The interesting thing throughout the paper is the progressiveness of society through sporting events in history: The intermingling of upper and lower classes at horse tracks, the introduction of baseball throughout the world, and OMalley breaking down the colour barrier by signing Jacky Robinson to the Brooklyn Dodgers. Although there may have been some differences between some, athletics has set a standard for breaking down sociological barriers between class and colour. These are the five significant events and the influential minds behind the events in sport management; they are certainly not all the people and events that had significant contribution for todays sport management, but simply the catalysts for change and progression.
Monday, December 23, 2019
Introduction Tobacco use is one of the major health indicators according to the Healthy People 2010 program. Community Health Nurses are aware that tobacco use is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading single avoidable cause of death. Many major diseases are caused by cigarette smoking including different types of cancers. If the current trends of tobacco use in the United States continues, it is estimated that five million people under the age of 18 will die prematurely from a smoking related disease. Studies also show that maternal tobacco use is associated with mental retardation and some birth defects in the new born babies (CDC grand rounds, 2010). Intervening to the problem and evaluating the results are utterly important to control and treat aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Health professionals are the best people who can educate the public. During the education classes, participants should be given information about the effects of the tobacco use on their health and its effect on ot hers. It is important to let the people know that even after quitting the chances of developing lung cancer remains high. The only difference is that as time goes the chances of getting lung cancer decreases. When comparing a smoker to a person who quit smoking, both of them are in danger. But the person who quit smoking has reduced his or her chance of developing lung cancer. Ã¢â¬Å"The prevention of smoking initiation among nonsmokers and the encouragement of smoking cessation among smokers lead to a decline in lung cancer incidents and mortality, which recently has been seen in states instituting aggressive anti- smoking campaignsÃ¢â¬ (Kelly, MacCrory, 2003, p.55s). As an alternative, pamphlets are handed out with phone numbers that link a patient to smoking cessation programs. These pamphlets are provided by the American Heart and Lung Association and can be ordered for free. 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